Category Archives: General

Please help the NEJL with photo identification from 1968 Conference on Welfare Law in NYC, part 2

NEJL photo identification project

We are hoping to identify the speakers featured in these contact sheets from the 1968 Conference on Welfare Law, held at Columbia University, New York, NY, November 7-9, 1968.

If you can identify one or more of the people in the photographs, please email or call the NEJL Archivist: 202-662-4043. Or email:

The photographs are from the National Institute for Education in Law and Poverty (NIELP) collection, which Thomas Buckley donated to the NEJL.

Thank you!

Please help the NEJL with photo identification from 1968 Conference on Welfare Law in NYC, part 1

NEJL photo identification project:

We are hoping to identify the speakers featured in these five photographs from the 1968 Conference on Welfare Law, held at Columbia University, New York, NY, November 7-9, 1968.

If you can identify one or more of the people in the photographs, please email or call the NEJL Archivist: 202-662-4043. Or email:

The photographs are from the National Institute for Education in Law and Poverty (NIELP) collection, which Thomas Buckley donated to the NEJL.

Thank you!

Photo from the 1968 Conference on Welfare Law, held at Columbia University, NYC, Nov. 7-9, 1968, NIELP-Thomas Buckley Collection, NEJL 071, Georgetown Law Library.

In re Gault Research Portal

50 years ago today, on May 15, 1967, Supreme Court Associate Justice Abe Fortas delivered the landmark United States Supreme Court opinion in Application of Paul and Marjorie Gault, 387 U.S. 1 (1967), which held that juveniles accused of crimes in a delinquency proceeding must be afforded many of the same due process rights as adults, such as the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, the right against forced self-incrimination, and the right to maintain a record of the proceedings.


Source: Record Group 267: Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1772 – 2007 Series: Appellate Jurisdiction Case Files, 1792 – 2010, File Unit: Case File 116, October Term 1966, In Re Gault. The link to the catalog record for the digitized case file can be found in the “archival materials” section of the research portal.

To mark in re Gault @ 50, we have launched a new research portal that offers links to archival materials documenting the case, as well as references to selected scholarship analyzing the history of the case and the state of due process in juvenile court.

Related NEJL materials: Oral history interview with Marshall Hartman, who co-authored the amicus curiae brief for the National Legal Aid and Defender Association. The other authors of the NLADA brief were L. Michael Getty and James Doherty. The NEJL also holds the James Doherty Papers.

Marshall Hartman receives Illinois State Bar Association’s Laureate Award

Marshall Hartman, one of the founders and former president of the CNEJL, has received the Illinois State Bar Association’s Laureate Award.

More information and a biographical summary can be found at the Illinois State Bar Association’s website:

The 1990 NEJL oral history interview with Marshall Hartman, conducted by James Neuhard, can be accessed through Digital Georgetown:

Congratulations, Marshall!



Materials from the National Institute for Education in Law and Poverty donated to the NEJL

Thomas Buckley, a retired professor from the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, donated his collection of materials from the National Institute for Education in Law and Poverty (NIELP) to the NEJL. Thomas Buckley served as the Deputy Director of the NIELP from 1967-1971. The director was Craig W. Christensen. The Institute was established in 1967 at Northwestern University School of Law to develop and implement an educational program for Legal Service attorneys. The goal wnielpas to go beyond serving “individual clients with individual problems,” and train lawyers as advocates to address systemic issues of poverty and “make new law on behalf of the poor,” writes Buckley. Welfare law and consumer law weren’t even taught at law schools at the time, and the training programs document the dynamic development of these areas of law at the time. The collection includes materials from the 1968 Conference on Welfare Law and materials on the Uniform Consumer Credit Code, prepared by the National Consumer Law Center in 1969.

Thomas Buckley graduated from Fordham University (1958) and from Yale Law School (1961). Prior to joining NIELP in 1967, he was a Visiting Professor at the School of Law at Boston University Law School (1966-1967) and an Assistant Professor of Law at the University of North Dakota School of Law (1964-1966). From 1961-1964, he was an Associate at Carter, Ledyard & Milburn in NYC. Buckley joined the faculty at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in 1971.

Journal of Court Reporting Features NEJL in Article on Law Day

The Journal of Court Reporting featured the NEJL featured the NEJL in an an article: “Celebrating the legal profession on Law Day and year-round.” The NEJL has been fortunate to partner with the oral history program of the National Court Reporters Foundation (NCRF)  and their wonderful volunteer reporters have been providing our oral history program with critical professional assistance for many years.

2002 oral history interview with congressman John Erlenborn available online

erlenborn_stillThe oral history interview with Congressman John Erlenborn (1927-2005), conducted by Don Saunders in July of 2002, is now available online. In the interview, Erlenborn, who represented Illinois in the US House of Representatives from 1965-1985, recalls the controversies over the OEO during the Nixon administration, the creation of the Legal Services Corporation, and his service on the LSC Board from 1989-2001. Erlenborn, a Republican, was initially appointed by President George H.W. Bush in 1989, and re-appointed by President Bill Clinton in 1996. In addition to his work in support of legal services, Erlenborn was instrumental in the passage of the 1974 Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). In addition to the streaming file, a transcript of the interview is available for download:


Clinton Bamberger Dies: The Loss of an Icon

[Cross-posted from the NLADA Civil Legal Aid Update]

By Alan W. Houseman

Clinton Bamberger, a giant in legal aid, died last Sunday in Baltimore. He was a friend and mentor to me and many others in the civil legal aid movement. Clint’s wife of 64 years, Katharine, died in December.

Clint was the first director of the federal legal services program in the Office of Economic Opportunity in 1965 and became Executive Vice-President of the Legal Services Corporation when it first began in 1975. He was also President of NLADA.


Clint Bamberger (standing), at the dedication of the NEJL at the Washington College of Law, September 1997. Left to right: Danna Bell-Russell, Justice Earl Johnson, Jr., Claudio Grossman and Patrick Kehoe. Photograph by Hilary Schwab. Published with permission. NEJL photo collection.

He had an extensive career in legal education. He was Dean of the Catholic University of America’s law school in the early 1970s. From 1979-1982 he worked at the Legal Services Institute in Boston with Gary Bellow and Jeanne Charn. The Institute was affiliated with Harvard and Northeastern law schools and was a unique initiative to develop a new way of training future legal aid lawyers. 1982, he joined the University of Maryland law school to build its clinical law program into a nationally distinctive effort using law students to provide free services to the poor.

Prior to his direct involvement in civil legal aid, Clint was an associate of Piper & Marbury, served as Maryland assistant attorney general from 1958 to 1959, and in 1960 became a partner at Piper & Marbury. In 1963, he argued Brady v. Maryland in the United States Supreme Court in the case that led the Court to rule that prosecutors must give defendants any evidence they possess that may indicate their innocence, known as the “Brady Rule.” Many criminal lawyers and scholars perceive the Brady Rule as one of the most significant developments in criminal justice law.

Several other accomplishments are worthy of note. In 1984, he brought a lead paint case that allowed tenants to put rent into a court-controlled account if lead-based paint was “easily accessible to a child” even without signs that the child had a high level of lead in their blood.  In 1989, Clint became involved in developing a legal aid system in South Africa, prior to the end of apartheid in 1994. He was also the first board member named to the Open Society Institute – Baltimore, a foundation that seeks to address issues of poverty, criminal justice and education.

For the civil legal aid community, Clint was not just the first director of the federal program, he, along with his deputy Earl Johnson, was its architect.

He envisioned civil legal aid as a critical tool to combat poverty and emphasized the ability of lawyers to empower poor people to help themselves. Speaking to an annual meeting of the National Legal Aid and Defender Association in 1965, Clint argued that “Lawyers must be activists to leave a contribution to society. The law is more than a control; it is an instrument for social change. The role of [the] OEO program is to provide the means within the democratic process for the law and lawyers to release the bonds which imprison people in poverty, to marshal the forces of law to combat the causes and effects of poverty. Each day, I ask myself, how will lawyers representing poor people defeat the cycle of poverty?” A year later, Clint told the National Conference of Bar Presidents: “We cannot be content with the creation of systems of rendering free legal assistance to all the people who need but cannot afford a lawyer’s advice. This program must contribute to the success of the War on Poverty. Our responsibility is to marshal the forces of law and the strength of lawyers to combat the causes and effect of poverty. Lawyers must uncover the legal causes of poverty, remodel the system which generates the cycle of poverty and design new social, legal and political tools and vehicles to move poor people from deprivation, depression, and despair to opportunity, hope and ambition.”

Clint and Earl fleshed out the overall design for the program. Unlike the legal aid systems that existed in other countries, which generally used private attorneys who were paid on a fee-for-service basis (known as Judicare), OEO’s plan for the legal services program in the United States utilized staff attorneys working for private, nonprofit entities. OEO’s grantees were to be full-service legal assistance providers, each serving a specific geographic area, with the obligation to ensure access to the legal system for all clients and client groups. The only specific national earmarking of funds was for services to Native Americans and migrant farmworkers.

Although OEO was able to generate proposals for federal funding from organizations eager to provide legal assistance, the legal services program also generated substantial opposition within the legal profession, mainly from local bar associations that represented private attorneys practicing in the areas that would be served by the new programs. One common response that arose out of local opposition to legal services programs was efforts by local bar associations to seek OEO funding for Judicare. However, Clint refused to fund Judicare programs as the primary model for legal services delivery, agreeing to fund only a few programs, primarily in rural areas.

In spite of the initial external controversy over Judicare, within nine months of taking office, Clint and his staff had completed the Herculean task of funding 130 OEO legal services programs. In the end, despite their initial misgivings, the OEO legal services program obtained the support of many local and state bar associations. By the end of 1966, federal funding grew to $25 million for these local programs and national infrastructure programs established to provide litigation support, training, and technical assistance. By 1968, 260 OEO programs were operating in every state except North Dakota, where the governor had vetoed the grants.

As Executive Vice-President of LSC, Clint helped shape the plan to expand to every county in the US, oversaw the development of the Office of Program Support and the Research Institute, developed some of the early delivery research which LSC undertook and provided constant guidance to the Senior Staff and President Tom Ehrlich.

Earl Johnson summed up his remarkable influence on legal aid: “The Legal Services Program would never have succeeded without Clint’s bold vision, his oratorical skills in articulating that vision, and his courage in facing down those who tried to kill the program at its birth. I had the great privilege of having Clint as a boss for 8 months and an inspiration and good friend for a half century. He belongs in the same rank of legal aid heroes as Reginald Heber Smith and Arthur von Briesen. ”

At the NLADA Annual Conference in December, NLADA will hold an event celebrating the life and accomplishments of Clint. A memorial fund in Clint’s name has been established at Viva House, 26 S. Mount St., Baltimore 21223.