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In a study conducted by L.C. Bidwell et al., published in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 377 male and female undergraduate students from the University of Colorado were selected to examine “current and childhood ADHD and its relation to frequency of cannabis, cigarette, and alcohol use as well as internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.” The researchers found that “current and childhood inattention symptoms” were predictive of severe cannabis use as well as negative use-related activities (e.g. use of other substances) in early adulthood for individuals with this specifier. Interestingly, “ADHD was independently associated with increased severity on the range of cannabis-related outcomes after controlling for concurrent internalizing and externalizing symptomology.” The researchers recognize that self-reported levels of ADHD that may have been influenced by cannabis use and could have biased their findings. Consequently, they concluded that it may be better to make assessments of ADHD based upon the collection of information from the parents of participants.