Author Archives: Carson Collier

The Reappearance of Mona Lisa: Appropriation Art and Dialogic Networks- Carson Collier


In the following pages I will go over the dialogic context associated with Appropriation Art, specifically looking at the iconic image of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Duchamp’s L.H.O.O.Q., Warhol’s Thirty Is Better Than One, and John’s Seasons are all famous works from different movements that depict the image of the Mona Lisa. How do these pieces’ associate with one another? Do these separate pieces of work drain the original dignity from the Mona Lisa? Or do they continue to re-distinguish the piece as a famous work of art?


Poster PDF


 Appropriation Art in a Dialogic Network

Roland Barthes refer to the three ingredients of an image: lines, forms, and colors (pp. 157-158). This sounds simple enough, however, images have the ability to provoke different meanings. Each image created by an artist, whether it be the Mona Lisa or Starry Night (1889), can be thought of as an extension of the artist’s mind. To fully appreciate an artwork, each viewer should try to consider the environment in which the work was created (Clark and Chalmers).

When an original piece is taken from its environment and altered once, a new dialogue is created between the two pieces. If an original piece is taken from its environment multiple times, the dialogic network becomes larger and complex. What fuels this network is not necessarily the image itself, but the intention behind each variation of the image in the network.

Mona Lisa

Hanging at an underwhelming 2’6”x 1’9” in her own corner of The Louvre, is Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. One of, if not the most, iconic paintings in history. The Mona Lisa gets around six million visitors
a year. However, fame is a two edge sword. Because Mona Lisa is one of the most iconic pieces of art in the world, it is also one of the most appropriated. The Mona Lisa has been appropriated in various forms, from popular culture, like the American television show the Simpsons with “Mona Lisa Simpson”, to random hobbyist like Svetlana Petrova who inserts her cat, Zarathustra, into famous pieces of artwork.



Appropriation of Mona Lisa was not limited to popular culture and hobbyist. Famous artists like Marcel Duchamp, Any Warhol, and Jasper Johns, have successfully appropriated the Mona Lisa in their work.


Marcel Duchamp: Da Vinci and Dada

“Dada is seen as iconoclastic and confrontational” -Hopkins

After World War One, most people’s view of the world was turned upside down. In order to cope with this change, different artist came together and created the Dada movement. The Dada movement was short but strong lived and it embraced everything anti-art; lasting from the mid- 1910s to the early 1920s. For the artists that participated in Dada, the violence of the war confirmed a lack of social structure in modern society (“MoMA Learning”) and the Dada movement was an attack against this society. Dada challenged the mainstream. For most Dada artist, the visual aesthetic of their work was not important. However, the ideas that the work promoted were the intended center of discussion. French artist Marcel Duchamp was one of the participatory artists of the Dada movement and also introduced the idea of ‘readymade’. Readymade work was associated with utilizing things that had already been manufactured and not typically considered ‘art’. Fountain (1917), is one of Duchamp’s earliest readymade pieces. Fountain was created by Duchamp to mock the mainstream ideals of society.

Fountain 1917, replica 1964 Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968 Purchased with assistance from the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1999

Fountain 1917, replica 1964 Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968 Purchased with assistance from the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1999

L.H.O.O.Q. (1919) was another avant-garde work from Duchamp coming out of the Dada movement. L.H.O.O.Q. features Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa with masculine features (moustache and beard) and a crude caption. If you sound out the individual letters in French “L-H-O-O-Q” it resembles the phrase “Elle a chaud a cul” which translates to “she has a hot ass” (Ayers). This work became an inside joke in the art world associated with the Dada movement. Shortly before da Vinci’s death he claimed to have never finished any of his work. So Marcel Duchamp decided to finish one of da Vinci’s works for him. All joking aside- this piece along with the Dada movement directly challenged traditional art and helped pave the way for the upcoming surrealist movement.


L.H.O.O.Q. (1919) Marcel Duchamp

It can be argued that Duchamp vandalized the Mona Lisa when he created L.H.O.O.Q. However, looking at the impact L.H.O.O.Q had on the Dada movement and other movements that followed, there could be a counter argument that Duchamp was utilizing that specific image of Mona Lisa to contribute to something larger than its existence as a store bought postcard.

Andy Warhol: Copying Mass Consumerism

“He was a legend in his own lifetime” (Honnef, pp. 7)

Another figure that was just as popular as the Mona Lisa, and had a background just as elusive as her smile, was Pop artist Andy Warhol. Warhol was known for his obscure screen prints of popular icons. The icons Warhol portrayed were anything popular and commercial, from famous people to cans of soup.



Warhol was obsessed with the celebrity cult and since Mona Lisa is one of the most iconic images of all time, Warhol obviously dedicated a whole series to the piece. Warhol appropriated the Mona Lisa a little bit differently than Duchamp. He took images of Mona Lisa and would reproduce them in various sizes and colors. In his piece Thirty Are Better Than One, Warhol creates a pattern-like print utilizing the image of Mona Lisa multiples times (Honnef, pp. 1-70).


Thirty Is Better Than One (1963) Andy Warhol

Like most of Warhol’s work, this piece embraces mass consumerism and reproduction. More is Better. The late 1950s-1960s were the peak of mass consumerism in America. Unlike Duchamp who challenged the environment around him, Warhol embraced his. Warhol took what was popular out of its original medium and made it his own.  Mona Lisa and other popular figures continued to appear in many more works throughout Warhol’s career.


Colored Mona Lisa (1963) Andy Warhol

Jasper Johns: Appropriation for Appreciation

“To be a good artist, you have to give up everything, including the desire to be a good artist” – Jasper Johns

John’s was an American Artist known for his work with Assemblage Art. “Assemblage is a form of three-dimensional collage in which found objects- everything from old iron chains to movie posters and Cracker Jack prizes- are combined to make sculpture” (Bischoff).

targreenGreen Target (1958) Jasper Johns

For example, Green Target (1958), one of John’s earlier pieces is made out of “encaustic on newspaper and cloth over canvas” (Jasper Johns, Green Target), not a typical medium. Jasper John’s, along with Robert Rauschenberg, were some of the key artists in the mid 20th century to move away from abstract expressionism. Johns liked to riff on the purposeful mess that was abstract expressionism with his Assemblage art. However, compared to Duchamp and Warhol, John’s rebellion was deemed as a little bit more reserved. One of John’s more popular pieces, Seasons (1985-1986), appropriates the image of Mona Lisa to pay homage to artists like Duchamp and Warhol who had used the iconic image in the past (“JOHNS, Jasper”).

The Seasons (Summer) 1987 Jasper Johns born 1930 Presented by the American Fund for the Tate Gallery, courtesy of Judy and Kenneth Dayton 2004

The Seasons (Summer) 1987 Jasper Johns born 1930 Presented by the American Fund for the Tate Gallery, courtesy of Judy and Kenneth Dayton 2004

Jasper John’s appropriation of the image of Mona Lisa directly acknowledges works like Thirty Is Better Than One and L.H.O.O.Q., pulling this huge dialogic network together.


Appropriation Art comes in many different shapes, sizes, and mediums. We see this when looking at how one image like the Mona Lisa can be taken from an oil painting, appropriated as a television cartoon, a postcard, a silk screen print, or a piece of Assemblage Art, and so on. I believe this repeated appropriation of the image of the Mona Lisa encourages a dialogic network. Mona Lisa’s continued existence in this appropriation pieces re- distinguishes the iconic image itself.


“Andy Warhol | Thirty Are Better Than One, from portfolio: Forty Are Better Than One (1963/2009) | Available for Sale | Artsy.” Artsy – Discover, Research, and Collect the World’s Best Art Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2017.

Ayers, Andrew. “Duchamp, Marcel.” The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 10 May. 2017.

Barthes, Roland. “Rhetoric of the Image.” In Image, Music, Text, translated by Stephen Heath, 32-51. New York: Hill and Wang, 1988.

Bischoff, Dan. “assemblage art.” Encyclopedia of New Jersey, edited by Maxine N. Lurie, and Marc Mappen, Rutgers University Press, 1st edition, 2004. Credo Reference, .

Francis M. Naumann. “Duchamp, Marcel.” Grove Art OnlineOxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 12 May. 2017.

Hopkins. Dada and Surrealism. N.p.: n.p., n.d. A Very Short Introduction. Web.

Honnef, Klaus. Warhol. N.p.: n.p., n.d. TASCHEN. Web.

Irvine, “Remix and the Dialogic Engine of Culture: A Model for Generative Combinatoriality.”

“Jasper Johns. Green Target. 1955 | MoMA.” The Museum of Modern Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2017.

“Jasper Johns | The Seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2017.

“JOHNS, Jasper.” Benezit Dictionary of ArtistsOxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 10 May. 2017.

“MoMA Learning.” MoMA | Dada. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2017.

“MoMA Learning.” MoMA | Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. 1889. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2017

“Mona Lisa.” Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, edited by Susie Dent, Chambers Harrap, 19th edition, 2012. Credo Reference, Accessed 10 May 2017.

Michell, Kalani. “I know it when I see it: Mona Lisa on the move.” CineAction, no. 91, 2013, p. 50+. Literature Resource .com/ps/i.dop=LitRC&sw=w&u=wash43584&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA346142605&it=r&asid=72c02bf1b3c60e9133f1a9d5aadb19b7. Accessed 10 May 2017.

Remixing the Mona Lisa- CC

Mona Lisa- Most parodied work of art in the world


What is appropriation art?




Jasper Johns


Racing Thoughts 1930


Colored Mona Lisa



Kirby Ferguson, Everything is a Remix

Bricolage- Does this even apply? (Rauschenberg, Duchamp)

Claude Levi-Strauss, “The Science of the Concrete

Possibly go into copyright and creative commons??

Lawrence Lessig, Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy.



Infinity Lines for Infinity Mirrors- CC//CG

Yayoi Kusama’s Infinity Mirror exhibition was wonderful and totally worth the wait. The whole exhibition was about experiencing different versions of infinity via infinity rooms.

How this worked: Wait in a long line-> 2-3 people enter room at once-> Each group gets 20 seconds to experience each room.img_1355

From what I could tell, most of the people (including myself at some times) entered the room with their phone camera ready, spending most of their time taking pictures and not fully experiencing the exhibit. Therefore, the rooms were not the only interface in which one could experience the infinity mirrors. Social media platforms like Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter also provided interfaces where the exhibit lived.  

These social media platforms would allow guests of the exhibit to share their own photos of the exhibit and provide their own caption. The guest are able to curate their own experience outside of the Hirshhorn. 
img_1356 img_1354

The posts are not limited to the social media platforms they are hosted on- the Hirshhorn’s landing page for the Kusama exhibit utilizes popular instagram and twitter photos taken by exhibit guests.




This was made possible through the use of the hashtag #infiniatekuasama

Utilizing social media and a hashtag allowed the Hirshhorn to promote the exhibit and guests to share the exhibit in their personalized way.

Group Project:

Rauschenberg & friends


Way more info on this google doc


Landscapes Over Time // CC

I did not know how to start this so I googled photography quotes, here is one of them:

“Taking an image, freezing a moment, reveals how rich reality truly is.”

For the post this week I utilized two of the websites you provided and a photo I took myself. I did not just choose three random photos to talk about, I wanted a common denominator that gave them each a context for comparing. Even though they are of different places, all three of the photos are landscapes. I decided on landscapes for two reasons: 1- I think landscape photos are interesting because nature is not known to change in an instant, these places will look the same for many years to come. 2- Because this change is not common, I feel like it will be easier to focus on the differences of the photographs over time.


Devil’s Canyon, Geysers, Looking Down (1868-70) Carleton E. Watkins

The first photo is fairly dark, and what is actually steam in the photo somewhat resembles a glare at first glance. According to the Met’s website, the photo was cited in a Hand-book of the Pacific Coast. The process that must have occurred if this photo was to be in a book would have been much longer than what we would go through today. This photo is a literal glimpse of the Devil’s Canyon from sometime between 1868-70. The light shown in the picture was the same light that was captured by the shutter and reflected on a piece of glass inside of the camera to create an image (plus a few more steps). The point is that this photo is a physical copy of that time- minus the color. This leads me to my next photo…

Villefranche-sur-Saône (1984) Raymond Depardon

Villefranche-sur-Saône (1984) Raymond Depardon

When looking for my second photo, I wanted to find something that still had to be developed. Like the photo above, the light shown in this photo is also the light that was captured in the shutter and used to create an image onto a piece of film. Unlike the photo above, this photograph is on color. Also the development process was a bit quicker and multiple copies were possible, but the editing process (if there was one) was not quick at all. For the context, this photo is one in a series of photos taken by Depardon showing what life is like in rural France. The photograph was specifically taken with artistic support.

The view from my parents house (last sunday) Me

The view from my parents house (last sunday) Me

This last photo is also a landscape. What makes it different (besides location) is the fact that this photo is digital. There was no shutter capturing the light when I took this photo on my iPhone 6 the other day. This photograph is made up of pixels. This enables me to send it to my parents via text message instantly, throw a filter over it and post it on social media, or photoshop something ironic in the background. I am able to make infinite copies of this photo and this photo can exist on multiple interfaces almost instantly.

Version 3 Version 4Version 2

Looking at the difference between the first photo and the last photo shows a drastic difference. One is created through a chemical process and the other is created through a program. Photography has always been important to art & culture. I find that looking at how it has developed over time this week was very interesting and I am looking forward to seeing what everyone has to share in class.


*Links to photograph’s webpages are embedded onto photo.

Immediacy & Dialogic Principles – Collier

Meaning is not determined, it will evolve with culture. Utilizing media and mediation theories is essential in understanding this. I will go over two applications from the readings for this assignment. The first application is that looking at cultural expression through different frameworks can invoke creative inspiration. The second application is that exploring the different frameworks can offer a new dialog where the artwork can be discussed (dialogic principle).

Creative Inspiration

“Both new and old media are invoking the twin logics of immediacy and hypermediacy in their efforts to remake themselves and each other” (Bolter & Grusin, p. 5).

Bolter & Grusin talk about immediacy and hypermediacy in art and media as two key desires of society in the 21st century. According to Bolter & Grusin, “the desire for immediacy leads digital media to borrow avidly from each other as well as from their analog predecessors” (p.9). This supports the practice of remix and remediation for creation. Traveling through these different frameworks and interfaces can force you to look a piece of work in a different way- in turn, sparking some kind of inspiration.

In the video series, “Is Everything a Remix” by Kirby Ferguson, Ferguson offers the theory that everything we do from creating pieces of art to getting dressed in the morning can be thought of as a remix. This is not very pertinent to the conversation here, but I believe it offers a different perspective. Does taking a photo of a piece of art and posting it online count as a remix? This newer perspective offers a new dialog and leads me to my second application.

New Dialogic Principles

While my Bolter & Grusin talked about physically combining old and new media, Malraux goes deeper into the meaning behind remediating artwork. Malraux hoped that creating a cultural encyclopedia could help fight fascism in “a culture that was open to appropriation by fascism” (p.3). The main purpose of Malraux’s work was to create a democratic conversation. The remediations (photos of the artwork) can carry a different meaning, encompassing dialogic principles. Again, exploring the different frameworks and interfaces causes you to think about the work differently and this is important. Having the ability to compare pieces of work from different continents next to each other affords a whole new basket of analysis.

Actual footage of me after writing this post:


Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000.

André Malraux, La Musée Imaginaire

Kirby Ferguson, Everything is a Remix

Toulouse-Lautrec: CC/CG

Collier Carson and Carley Gramson

Toulouse-Lautrec’s artistic career revolutionized the trajectory of Modernism in the 20th century. His influence on European (and later American) cultural values and had an aesthetic as well as a technological component. From a purely aesthetic standpoint, Lautrec was distinctly modern in that he portrayed the exciting nightlife of the new Parisian bourgeois culture — “the spirit of the belle époque, a time of vitality and decadence in France” — and forewent verisimilitude in order to create a sense of environment and give his works a sort of thrilling energy. However, what made Lautrec’s contributions to 20th century Modernist especially unique and influential was the technological. Lautrec’s technological developments and innovations in lithography allowed him to produce art on a different scale than previously possible and to conceptualize art as a cultural product that could be disseminated on such a mass scale. Lautrec made lithography and printmaking into an artistic project that was of equal importance with painting; he lifted advertisement and poster-making from the purely commercial and kitschy to the avant-garde.

img_1142As Professor Irvine discusses in The Artworld as a Network System and the Institutional Theory of Art what constitutes “art” is constantly in a state of redefinition and flux. Lautrec radically reorganized the “Artworld”, not only through his aesthetic and compositional novelties, but through the possibilities that emerged when lithography and printmaking became a node within the “artworld network”. Given that the 20th century globally would be defined by capitalism, mass-production consumer culture, and advertisements, and given that the 20th century artworld would be defined by a shift from the museum to the commercial gallery, Lautrec was ahead of his time and very much helped to usher in the 20th century of “art”.


How Toulouse-Lautrec utilized lithography is very much tied into the field of semiotics. Before the artwork is even created it goes through multiple interfaces- from the stone to the canvas. Lautrec would have to sketch an inverse copy of his idea onto the stone and then transfer it onto the different sheets of canvas. One very interesting aspect of the Toulouse-Lautrec exhibition at the Phillips Collection was being able to see these separate layers next to each other. Does the meaning of these prints change with each layer of color added? How do the ‘mass produced’ prints take away from- or add to the intentions behind the print?




Irvine,Introduction to the Artworld Network System and the Institutional Theory of Art

Thomas Cole & Swedish Doom Metal – Carson

Thomas Cole’s The Voyage of Life: Old Age, is the last in The Voyage of Life series. This series illustrates the life of one man (the Voyager) while he travels through the ‘river of life’.

Thomas Cole (American, 1801 - 1848 ), The Voyage of Life: Old Age, 1842, oil on canvas, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund

Thomas Cole (American, 1801 – 1848 ), The Voyage of Life: Old Age, 1842, oil on canvas, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund

The first thing I noticed about this work was the darkness. It provokes daunting emotions. The dark clouds are intimidating and blend into the vast dark ocean, giving the feeling of eternity. The second thing I noticed was the light. Coming out of the dark clouds is a beam of light– seemingly coming out of the heavens. This light carries your eye towards an old man in a ragged boat. This man is reaching up towards the light and is accompanied by two angels. One next to him in the boat, and the other closer to the heavens– welcoming the old man to immortal life. Overall, The Voyage of Life: Old Age is embracing death.

Breaking it down using Peirce:

Peirce uses a triadic model to model a ‘sign’. The Peircean Model consists of the representamen– the form of the sign (physical or non), the interpretant– the sense of the sign, and the object– something beyond the sign that the sign refers to (Chandler p. 29). Now let us apply this to The Voyage of Life: Old Age as a whole. The representamen would be the painting itself. The interpretant, or should I say interpretants, are the aspects of the painting itself. The old man, the angles, the light, and the dark. The interpretants, as well as the representamen point to the concept of death. The object in this situation is death. Therefore, the whole painting is the sign.

Changing Mediums:

The National Gallery of Art is not the only place one could find The Voyage of Life: Old Age. This artwork is also featured as the cover artwork for the Swedish doom metal band, Candlemass. Nightfall (1987) is known to be a “Doom Epic” album. Unlike single-based albums, the tracks on the album follow a story– they take you on a journey.


Like Cole’s work, Nightfall also takes the listener on a journey addressing the embrace of death. This being said, how does the role of The Voyage of Life: Old Age change as cover art?

My best guess: The representamen: The physical album as a whole (Vinyl + Cover + typography “Candlemass” & “Nightfall”).The interpretant: the meaning of death behind the artwork. The object: A thought provoking metal journey into darkness. 



Daniel Chandler, Semiotics: The Basics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007

Roland Barthes, “Rhetoric of the Image.” In Image, Music, Text, translated by Stephen Heath, 32–51. New York: Hill and Wang, 1988.

The Voyage of Life: Old Age- Thomas Cole

Wikipedia. Candlemass, Nightfall

Candlemass, Nightfall Full Album– incase you want to get heavy

C^2 – Group 1

As the readings for this week make clear, the context within which an artwork is viewed constructs our understanding of it. This includes the physical positioning of the work – from it’s place in the frame frame, to the wall, to the gallery space, to the museum, to the location in a city, etc. – as well as the conceptual and intellectual positioning of the work – within literature and history. What most struck me seeing Samuel Morse’s House of Representatives at the National Gallery of Art were the handling/rendering of the scene itself – the scale of the work, the depth of space, and the luminosity of surface that Morse conveys – and the interplay of Morse’s House of Representatives with its opposite in the room, Edward Savage’s The Washington Family (1789), as well as with the other portraits in the room.

Both Morse’s House of Representatives and Savage’s The Washington Family engage with and conflate themes of art and culture, politics, history and power, and science and technology.

Positioned opposite of one another, the two works are clearly in conversation with one another and contribute to a richer understanding overall.

Most notably, the two works address two opposing institutions that make up American governance, the President and the Congress; just outside of the walls of the NGA, the buildings that house these two institutional bodies stand opposite of one another, the White House and the Capitol.

“Investigate things in relation to their context” (O’Dohery, p.7)

Physically within the gallery space, both paintings open up the room and suggest a sort of theatric performance that is different from reality, but that suggest what the artists idealize reality to be. In the case of Morse’s House of Representatives, he portrays Congress engaging in an orderly and civil debate, whereas in reality Congress was chaotic and unruly as they debated controversial legislations such as the Slave Trade Act of 1820 and the Missouri Compromise of 1821. The red curtains that adorn the walls of the US Capitol mirror the red curtains in Savage’s, The Washington Family, and here these curtains look very much like the red curtains that are typically seen on the stage of a theatre performance. It seems that Savage is also attempting to proactively construct and write history through his “historical painting”: here what lies beyond the stage is untouched land, and the map laid open on his desk as well as the blank globe on the floor suggest military conquest, colonization, and a history of domination that is awaiting to be written on a “blank page” (which of course was in actuality not blank at all). Again considering the two paintings as in conversation with one another, while Morse’s Congress is likely addressing a domestic issue of conquest and domination – over black bodies and slavery – Savage appears more concerned with international dominance and colonization. Given that Washington gestures to the map with a sword and his wife with a fan, we can presume that Savage is implying a political and cultural dominance that the United States has/will have over the rest of the world.

Now let us take a walk outside of the National Gallery of Art. Next door to the National Gallery of Art is the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). Both buildings sporting neoclassical architecture, similar to most of the iconic buildings around the National Mall. This classical theme is not limited to the physical architecture of the buildings. These two museums also illustrate classical ideals of exhibitions. The NGA and the NMNH opened during the peak of the ‘modern’ exploration and exhibition. Usually, whatever was considered historical (from a very eurocentric perspective) was placed in art museums. While, things that were not considered ‘euro-historical’, but ‘exotic’, were put into the natural history museums with the natural exhibitions.

Today, one could take a look around the National Mall from the NGA and see few non-neoclassical buildings. Two of these new buildings are, the National Museum of the American Indian(NMAI) and the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC). The architecture of these establishments was designed to separate them from the classical look that dominates the National Mall. This was done for many reasons, one being the fact – that the collections within and purpose behind the NMAI and NMAAHC were not founded on western aristocratic exploration.



National Museum of Natural History (1911)


National Museum if the American Indian (2004)


National Museum of African American History and Culture (2016)


Edward P. Alexander and Mary Alexander, Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums, Second Edition (Mountain Creek, CA; London, UK: Altamira Press, 2007).

Daniel Buren, “Function of the Museum.” In Theories of Contemporary Art, edited by Richard Hertz, 2nd ed., 189–92. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985.

Bruno Latour, “Networks, Societies, Spheres: Reflections of an Actor-Network Theorist,” International Journal of Communication 5 (2011), 796–810.

Andrew McClellan, The Art Museum from Boullée to Bilbao. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008.

Brian O’Doherty, Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery SpaceBerkeley, CA: Univ. of California Press, 1986.

National Museum of Natural History

National Museum of the American Indian

National Museum of African American History and Culture