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Annotated Bibliography for the Final Research Project

Estefanía Tocado

What is more real: The Virtual museum or the Institutional Museum?

 Augé, Marc. Non-places: An Introduction to Supermodernity. London-New York: Verso, 1995. Print.

Augé analyzes the effects of a globalized society in relationship to what he considers to be a triple decentering process that affects the city (identified in the urbanization and architecture of the city), the household, and the individual.  This globalization has anthropological consequences related to the individual and collective identity since this is constructed in negotiation with otherness.  He particularly studies the erasure of spatial frontiers.  Therefore, he focuses on what he calls “empirical non-places” which are places of circulation, consumption, and communication.  The place / non-place pairing is based on the level of sociality and symbolization of a particular space.  According to Augé, if a space can be defined as relational, historical, and concerned with identity it is a place.  If it cannot, then it is a non-place.  Non-places are often spaces such as hospitals, airports, and shopping malls.  As Augé asserts, places and non-places never exist in a pure form so they reconstitute and resume themselves and the human relations generated in these spaces.  Moreover, a place and a non-place are never totally completed like palimpsests that are constantly juxtaposing and overlapping new identities and relations where traces of past identities and relations are built upon.

In relationship to my project, I am interested in using Augé’s ideas in relationship to the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao.  The museum design is a product of a globalized architecture created by Frank Gehry who is recognized as very reputable architect.  This building has embedded the whole city within its walls revitalizing and incorporating it into a globalized market and providing it with cultural capital (Bordieu The Forms of Capital 243).  It has extended the museum function to the city of Bilbao.  As Augé defends, particularly large-scale worldwide architecture, such as the Guggenheim, restores the meaning of time and talks to us about the future.  It also questions time in relationship to artistic creation and history, continuity and discontinuity, local and global, place and non-place, emerging in art and in the artistic creation.  I defend that the Guggenheim falls into what Augé defines as a “space that it is not in themself an anthropological place.”  The Google Art Project, as a space pertaining to cyberspace, is therefore also a non-place.  As with all non-places, the Guggeheim and the Art Google Project are hypermediated.  In the case of the virtual museum,  is especially visible that it is hypermediated space due to the implementations of social interfaces such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube that allow the user to expand and share his artistic interests on the web.  In relationship to spatial issues and hypermediation, I would also like to explore limitations of the physical space and the professional curating function provided by the institutional museum in opposition to the virtual-social interface and the virtual user-curator functions of the Google Art Project.

Baudrillard, Jean. “The Precession of Simulacra.” Simulacra and Simulation. Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser. Michigan: Michigan UP, 1988. 1-20.           

Baudrillard focuses on how reality is mediated to us so the code of “real” does not exist.  Simulation is not based on referential being or a model, but it is generated in the same way as the simulated action or thing without an origin or initial reality.  Matrices that reproduce this code an indefinite number of times produce the real.  Therefore, it is not longer real.  He calls it the “hyperreal.”  Combinatory models in the hyperspace lack a referential / empirical reality to rely on which produces the hyperreal.  The hyperreal is sheltered by the imaginary and its lack of distinction between the real and the imaginary.  Therefore, simulation is based on the absence and not the presence of an empirical reality.  It also negates the validity of a sign as a value.  Moreover, he questions the veracity of images and religion as defended by iconoclasts.  Baudrillard argues that, at this point in history, the image has no relation to any reality because it is a pure simulacrum.  It is also interesting to point out that he argues about the relationship between the hyperreal and the imaginary as the imaginary (he uses the example of Disneyland) serves as a simulation to make the individual think that the real is somewhere else, that is to say, that it is no longer about a false representation of reality (and its ideology) but concealing the fact that the real is no longer real, saving the reality principle (13).

I would like to apply Baudrillard´s theory on the real and hyperreal to the issue of the virtual museum.  Google Art project provides the user with a personalized experience of what it is to visit a museum.  The user can create their own particular collection, send it to his or her friends and family, or share it on the web.  The false illusion that is based on a previous model, the institutional museum, promotes the idea of Google Art project as being part of the hyperreal and therefore based on a referential / empirical model proposed in the code of the real world (the so called national institutionalized museums).  The fact that users can choose from a vast number of museums to visit and gather their own personal collection encourages the idea of living an experience more real than the real visit to a physical museum.  On the other hand, the institutional museum, despite being conceived as part of the code of the real, is also being mediated by its own physical restrictions (architectural) as well as by the work of curators, designers, and history of art experts.  The impression of experiencing a museum visit as something occurring in the framework of the real is also an illusion.  Thus it does not matter how many times we visit the same museum, our visit is always the product of a specific moment in time subjected to specific spatial arrangements, special exhibitions, a particularly designed visit tour, or the appearance of disappearance of a determined work of art.  Keeping all these factors in mind, I would like to explore the virtual visit and its technological construction (with the help of Manovich´s Software Takes Command) and interface in an open dialogue with a physical visit to an institutional museum (I will also use the Guggenheim museum as an example).  I would also like to intersect Baudrillard´s postmodern theory with the structuralist ideas of Victor Slovsky in his essay: “Art as Technique” exploring the defamiliarization effect produced by art in the virtual and physical museum context as well as the neo-marxist ideas of Walter Benjamin and his concept of the artwork possessing a unique “aura.”

Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding Media. Cambridge-MA, London-UK: The MIT Press, 2000. Print.

Bolter and Grusin debate the logic of transparent immediacy in the virtual reality where the medium is designed to disappear.  In this attempt to create an interface that is “interfaceless,” there is a wish to erase the traces of mediation to make the virtual reality closer to the code of the real (5).  The concept of remediation is characterized by adapting from one medium to another, and in the digital world the medium cannot be completely effaced so the new medium remains dependent on previous ones despite wanting to give a transparency illusion to the user.  Hypermediacy is constituted by its multiplicity making various acts of representation visible.  While immediacy suggests a unified visual space, hypermediacy offers a heterogeneous space that offers the opportunity to open multiple windows to other media representations (34).  The hypermediacy of non-places are mediated spaces that, according to Augé and cited by Bolter and Grusin, are also defined as pure conceptual experiences, experiences of enjoyment of media the same way as it happens in cyberspace.  Cyberspace is a non-place with the same characteristics as a physical non-place, and therefore exists in the conjunction of the network of multiple nodes and connections.  The same way as virtual reality remediates the visual spaces of painting, film, and television, the social space remediates historical places such as cities or non-places such as museums.  Like other mediated spaces, cyberspace refashions and extends earlier media which are the product of material and social environments (183).

In relationship to my project, I am interested in applying Bolter and Grusin´s theories of remediation and transparent immediacy in the context of the institutional and visual museum infrastructure and architectural design.  Both are spaces where hypermedia is a common denominator.  Therefore I would like to explore if there are similar individual experiences in the interaction between the work of art and the virtual user / visitor of a museum and link it to Baudrillard´s ideas on the hyperreal.  Also, I would like to explore the similarities between both the Google Art Project and the Guggenheim as hypermediated non-places and the implications that this has in terms of curating and engaging the physical museum with digital technologies.

 Secondary Bibliographical Sources

Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Reproducibility.” Walter Benjamin: Selected Writings 1938-1940. Vol. 4. Cambridge-MA, London-England: Belknap Harvard UP, 2003.251-283.

Bordieu, Pierre. “Forms of Capital.” Soziale Ungleichheiten. Ed. Reinhard Kreckel. Trans. Richard Nice. Goettingen: Otto Schartz & Co., 1983. 183-98.

Ciolfi, Luigina and Liam J. Bannon. “Designing Hybrid Places: Merging Interpretation, Design, Ubiquitous Technologies and Geographies of the Museum Space.” CoDesign 3. 3 (2007): 159-180.

 Debord, Guy. The Society of Spectacle. New York: Zone Books, 1994. Print.

Davis, Stuart. Writing and Heritage in Contemporary Spain: The Imaginary Museum of Literature. Woodbridge, UK-Rochester, NY: Tamesis Books, 2012. Print.

Maulraux, André. The Voices of Silence. New York: Doubleday, 1953. Print.

Manovich, Lev. Software Takes Command: Extending the Language of New Media. London-New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. Print.

MCKay, A. “Affective Communication: Towards the Personalization of a Museum Exhibition.” CoDesign 3.1 (2007): 167-173.

Murrey, Janet H. Inventing the Medium: Principles of Interaction as a Cultural Practice. Cambridge-MA, London-UK: The MIT Press, 2012. Print.

Slovsky, Victor. “Art as a Tehcnique.” Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays. Trans. and ed. Lee T. Lemon and Maron J. Reis. Lincoln-Nebraska, 1995. 5-22.

Wyman, Bruce et al. “Digital Storytelling in Museums: Observations and Best Practices.” Digital 54.4 (2011): 461-468.

Looking at my neighborhood with fresh eyes

my building

Street parking

Street parking

Estefanía Tocado

While I was walking around my newly discovered neighborhood, I could not have been more surprised by how ambient intelligence is full of invisible data traces (Starbucks Wi-Fi, smart phone signals, street parking paid from your smart phone, and hidden recording cameras).  This entire invisible infrastructure erases the boundaries between the public and the private spaces, integrating both in the urban space (Offenhuber-Ratti 39).  Many of these recording systems were functionally integrated into the architectural structure of street lights, traffic lights, and façade decorations of embassy buildings. As the integration into the city space is so well achieved, they are disguised under ornamental features that complement buildings, street lights, and windows.  So the first layer of visible distributed cognition were the Wi-Fi signs on Starbucks and Books a Million windows which offered their costumers free access to the Internet.  Other less accessible signs of the distributed cognition were hidden cameras in bank cash machines, under the traffic lights that regulate the traffic of Dupont Circle, as well as in the street lights and the corners of the buildings facing the intersection such as those at the Hotel Dupont.  Besides security reasons, traffic light cameras could potentially record traffic patterns and identify traffic problems and approaching vehicles as Carlos Ramos et al. suggest (16).


Diane J. Cook says that ambient intelligence has great benefits for the users by customizing their environments and unobtrusively meeting their needs, but she also raises the question of whether there is a bad use of data collection or when ambient intelligence performs corrective actions that are wrong (286-7).  In relationship to her statement, it is worth mentioning that for the first time this last Sunday I realized about the number of cameras that follow me in my building, starting from the front and back entrances to other cameras placed in the ground floor.  I was also surprised by the amount of distributed cognition on the buildings on my street.  The majority of them had hidden at least one camera at their front entrance, and they had others integrated in the gardens as in the case of the Moldavian embassy.  After my discovery I experienced a bit of the “big brother” syndrome that Cook adequately mentions in her article as well as issues of personal privacy and security.  As Ramos affirms, ambient intelligent environments involve real world problems so they deal with cases where some information may be correct, some other incorrect or missing (16).  Therefore, the potential loss of information and how it is managed is a fact to question or to take into consideration.  However, people navigating thorough Dupont Circle’s multiple street intersections did not seem to be concerned about it or even aware of it.  Most of their attention was directed towards reading their smart phones as opposed to being aware of what was happening around them.  Even less attention was paid to other forms of distributed intelligence.   Surprisingly enough, many of them continued texting while crossing the crosswalk.  The accessibility of an internet signal (e.g. Wi-Fi) was not even a question.  Distributed cognition and ambient intelligence has silently become such an integral part of the city lifestyle that most of its inhabitants do not even observe it.

hotel dupont

Works Cited

 Cook, Diane J.,  Juan C. Augusto, and Vikramaditya R. Jakkula. “Ambient Intelligence: Technologies, Applications, and Opportunities”” Pervasive and Mobile Computing 5, no. 4 (August 2009): 277-98.

Ramos, Carlos, Juan Carlos Augusto and Daniel Shapiro, “Ambient Intelligence-The Next Step for Artificial Intelligence.” IEEE, Intelligent Systems, 2008

Offenhuber, Dietemar and Carlo Ratti, “Reading the City: Reconsidering Kevin Lynch´s Notion of Legibility in the Digital Age” in The Digital Turn: Design in the Era of Interactive Technologies, ed. Zane Berzina, Barbara Junge, and Walter Scheiffele (Zurich: Weissensee Academy of Art, Park Books, 2012), 216-224.

The Field Work of Ambient Computing


I explored several blocks closed to Foggy Bottom Metro Station.

Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 2.32.53 PM

Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 11.06.09 AMHere is a photo I took from the outside of a dry cleaner. It was the first time I ran into this cleaner. But I can get much information about it through Internet by seeing the rate and reviews on websites. In this case, a new comer of the city will not feel lacking too much past experience of the city. She can get information from content-sharing platforms, which is created by other costumers. It is one kind of urban sensing: crowd-sourcing (Nabian & Ratti). The cities don’t unfold in front of people merely with their current look. They are also displayed on a timeline—extending into the past, as well as the future. By scanning the QR code posted. I can download coupons to my cellphone. I also got the information that the discount will end in the August. This cleaner also accepts payment by GW student card. I think it can be regarded as a viral sensing.Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 2.14.02 PM This method of payment didn’t built new infrastructure, but simply connected POS, Banking system and campus card services. This method provides conveniences by sensing consumers’ identities, and completing the payment at the discounted prices at the same time.

Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 4.27.51 PMOn the door of a coffee shop next to the cleaner, more small posters can be found. One of them looks like a bottle. It means that this coffee shop is one partner of TapIt, which is an association who promote bottle-less life-style. They have bound many cafe into a network that lets those who want water find those willing to provide it. People can find the locations of TapIt partners on an online map.  It expands each citizen’s perceived sphere of responsibility from the domestic space, to the space of the city, which might result in a more responsible urbanity (Nabian & Ratti). Another of them informs people that there is a security system built inside. I went to the website of the security company. Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 4.32.47 PMIt provides security services by utilizing the existing equipment (Another example of viral sensing). It is claimed as a system that can deal with various kinds of threats and users can operate it with smartphone.

Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 2.24.36 PM

Some databases have been created to let people make better sense of service providers. People who borrow rental bikes might meet problems that they cannot find docks at a bike station when they want to put the bike back. If we cannot create more docks immediately, citizens can become distributed. A mobile app shows many pie charts that indicate the locations and numbers of bikes and docks. Screen Shot 2014-04-08 at 2.27.00 PMData might be collected by the sensors that were built at the bike stations. It enables people to make better decisions. Similarly, with another app, people can input the expected arrive and depart time, and compare the parking fee nearby. The once hidden information now become public accessible.

IMG_2109The control system of traffic light better displays Ambient computing system’s capability of actuation. People can touch the sensor to tell the system that they want to cross. The traffic light will “decide” to change or not based on several factors in the context. Intelligent and assistive devices provide a mechanism by which AmI systems can executive actions and affect the system users (Cook, Augusto & Jakkula, 2009). However, I can’t say that these ambient computing devices I saw have intelligence. AmI is considered as a new challenge for AI and is the next step in AI’s evolution (Ramos, Augusto & Shapiro, 2008 ). However, I doubt that the maturing ambient computing is generated from AI. These systems still don’t have the ability to make creative decisions as humans. At this stage, they don’t distinguish themselves from complicated operation systems that run well-designed algorithms.


The last picture that I want to put here is one I took at Healy Hall. The poster encourages people to come back to the “real world”. However, I don’t think technology is leading us toward sort of ”fake reality”, although maybe we will never walk outside Plato’s caves and see the reality. But putting this argument aside, I think ambient computing are not creating virtual reality, but just provides us with information in unconventional ways.

Works Cited

Cook, D. J., Augusto, J. C., & Jakkula, V. R. (2009). Ambient intelligence: Technologies, applications, and opportunities. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 5(4), 277-298.

Nabian, Nashid & Ratti, Carlo, “The City to Come,” in Innovation: Perspectives for the 21st Century(OpenMind),

Ramos, C., Augusto, J. C., & Shapiro, D. (2008). Ambient intelligence—The next step for artificial intelligence. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 23(2), 15-18.

Design Bibliography


Balsamo, Anne Marie. Designing Culture: The Technological Imagination at Work. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press, 2011.
Baskinger, Mark, and Mark Gross. “Tangible Interaction = Form + Computing.” Interactions (ACM) 17, no. 1 (January 2010): 6–11. doi:10.1145/1649475.1649477.
Berzina, Zane, Barbara Junge, and Walter Scheiffele, eds. The Digital Turn: Design in the Era of Interactive Technologies. Zurich: Weißensee Academy of Art, Park Books, 2012.
Kaptelinin, Victor, and Bonnie A Nardi. Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2006.
Krippendorff, Klaus. The Semantic Turn: A New Foundation for Design. CRC Press, 2005.
Lidwell, William, Kritina Holden, and Jill Butler. Universal Principles of Design: 115 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions, and Teach through Design. Revised. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2010.
Lima, Manuel. Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2011.
Manovich, Lev. “Deep Remixability.” Artifact 1, no. 2 (2007): 76–84. doi:10.1080/artifact.v1i2.1358.
Martin, Bella, and Bruce M Hanington. Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2012.
Murray, Janet H. Inventing the Medium: Principles of Interaction Design as a Cultural Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012.
Norman, Donald A. Things That Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1993.
Norman, Donald A. “Affordance, Conventions, and Design.” Interactions 6, no. 3 (May 1999): 38–43. doi:10.1145/301153.301168.
———. “Cognitive Artifacts.” In Designing Interaction, edited by John M. Carroll, 17–38. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
———. The Design of Everyday Things. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1988.
———. “THE WAY I SEE IT: The Transmedia Design Challenge: Technology That Is Pleasurable and Satisfying.” Interactions 17, no. 1 (January 2010): 12–15. doi:10.1145/1649475.1649478.
Yuille, Jeremy, and Hugh Macdonald. “FEATURE: The Social Life of Visualization.” Interactions 17, no. 1 (January 2010): 28–31. doi:10.1145/1649475.1649482.
Chen, Brian X. “Apple and Samsung Reprise Patent Fight (With Google a Shadow Presence).” The New York Times, April 1, 2014.

Semiosis, Symbol Processing

“A sign is that by which knowing we know something more.” (C. S. Peirce)

How do we cognitively, collectively, and intersubjectively produce all the meaningful “mores” in our symbolic systems?

a = >a

[not a mathematically possible notation, violates rule of identity, but meaning emerges by an additive inference instantiated/expressed in other symbolic form, Peirce’s interpretant]

The Text and the Digital Media

Estefanía Tocado

Last semester I was asked a very simple question that is not that simple to answer:  Why read in the 21st century?  After thinking about it and researching about the topic, I decided to approach the question in a very positive way.  So my thesis was that literary reading was going to be implemented by new technologies, such as tablets and digital media.  However, my professor disagreed, postulating the following affirmation:  “Your approach is interesting.  However, in the age of the reader, according to Foucault the number of readers is decreasing every year without distinctions of age, gender, and ethnicity, despite of the emergence of digital media.”  His answer left me quite unsettled as well as rethinking the fracture between what has been understood as belonging to high culture, for example books, in opposition to visual media thought to be part of low culture.  Régis Debray in his essay:  “What is Mediology?” proposes the necessity to cut down the walls that separate forms that are considered to be higher (religion, art, politics) from the domains of what is considered lower (materials, signal carriers, transmission channels) to integrate technology as part of our culture and not anti-culture (32).

Also, Marshall McLuhan affirms that “the medium is the message” because it is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action.  The content or uses of such media are as diverse as they are ineffectual in shaping the form of human association (4).  He also asserts that, before electric speed, for many the message was the content, however, (…) the effect of the medium is made strong because it is given another medium as “content” (5,9).  He uses the example of a movie based on a novel or a play or an opera, but the effect of the movie form is not related to its program content.  The “content” of writing or print is speech, but the reader is almost entirely unaware either of the print or of speech (9).  Therefore, if the reader is not aware of the differences between print or digitalization as well as differences in speech, I still keep trying to understand why the interest in reading is decreasing every year.  James W Carey affirms that the appearance of the telegraph modified and challenged the ideology of its time, so maybe that is exactly what needs to be done regarding literature and its accessibility in the digital world (4).  Pierre Bourdieu asserts that there are three forms of cultural capital:  the embodied state in the form of long-lasting dispositions of the mind and body, the objectified state in the form of cultural goods (e.g. books, dictionaries), and the institutionalized state which confers original properties on cultural capital which it is presumed to guarantee.  If books are the representation of the objectified state and literature is as an extension of this perception, maybe the only way to repair the fracture between the printed book and its digital counterparts is by erasing the symbolic value of the printed book and the cultural value added to the act of reading directly from a printed book instead of doing it digitally.  If the medium is the message and the social and cultural symbolic implications of a book allow the integration of digital media as a path to implement the number of readers, then a first step towards the blurring of the division of high and low culture would be dismantled in favor of promoting literature in any of its representations.


Works Cited

Bourdieu, Pierre. The Forms of Capital. “Ökonomisches Kapital, kulturelles Kapital, soziales Kapital.” in Soziale Ungleichheiten (Soziale Welt, Sonderheft 2), Ed. Reinhard Kreckel. Goettingen: Otto Schartz & Co., 1983. 183-98. Trans. Richard Nice.

Carey, James W. “Technology and Ideology: The Case of the Telegraph.” Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society. London-New York: Routledge, 1989. 155-177.

Debray, Régis. “What is Mediology?” Le Monde Diplomatique (1999): 32. Trans. Martin Irvine.

McLuhan, Marshall. “The Medium is the Message.” Understanding Media, The Extensions of Man, Part I, 2nd Edition, 1964.

The Written Word and the Visual Image

 Estefanía Tocado

According to Noam Chomsky, the linguistic “performance” that articulates linguistic competence involves many factors, not only linguistic, but also other extralinguistic related to the beliefs concerning the speaker and the situation when the speech has been uttered (102).  Other extralinguistic factors, such as social and cultural background (studied in the field of sociolinguistics), can play an important role in the semantic and pragmatic aspects of the communicative act.  It is also relevant to point out that language is also used as an organized symbolic form of a cultural genre, and because of its properties as a semiotic code its combinatoriality is multiple and complex, especially when dealing with more than one genre (Irvine 11).  In the 20th century since the appearance of the photographic image and the creation of film, film studies theorist and scholars have long debated the intrinsic relationship between the written word and the visual image.  Due to the fact that Western society is deeply indebted to the concept of logocentrism, for many years the literary field has always been regarded as superior (high culture) and the visual world as dependent on it.  However, things have shifted dramatically in the last few decades.  The visual image and its endless combinations, as portrayed in production of a film, stand as the representation that the image is an independent sign that participates from a system (semiotic code) that has multiple layers of construction and meaning generating its own linguistic competence through the visual media.  André Bazin in his essay “The Ontology of the Photographic Image” argued for visual images as being signs, and he tried to categorize the different kind of images according to the means by which they are produced and the relation between the image and the object it wants to represent (Morgan 107).

The relationship between literature and film has been long established.  However, it is interesting to remark how often these two are mutually influenced sharing an intermedial channel especially in the case of the narrative and the film.  An excellent example of this intermediality is very often seen in novels and filmic adaptations.  In the case of Jane Eyre, a well known novel that has been adapted to the visual media several times, it is noteworthy to indicate that every reading has its own understanding of how to tell the story in the visual code.  In accordance to Debora Cartmell who studies theory of filmic adaption, the transposition from one genre to the other is a matter of relocating it in a major context:  “All screen versions of a novel are transpositions in the sense that they take a text from one genre and deliver it to new audiences by means of the aesthetic conventions of an entirely different generic process (here novel into film). But many adaptations of novels and other generic forms contain further layers of transposition, relocating their source not just generically, but in cultural, geographical, and temporal terms” (ctd en Sanders 20-21).  As stated by Chomsky, the extralinguistic factors are extremely important in order to adequately portray the semantics and the pragmatics of the act of communication established between the visual image (the film) and the audience.  Linda Hutcheon in her book Theory of Adaptation affirms that an adaptation is a derivation that is not derivative – a work that is second without being secondary.  It is its own palimpsestic thing” (9).  I would like to regard this intrinsic relationship between the literary word and the visual image as a palimpsestic process from both ends, and not only from the filmic, since the view of a specific novel can be heavily influenced by its filmic adaptation in the mind of the audience creating new layers of meaning to its original reading and understanding of the written story.


Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind. Cambridge UP, 2006.

Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Adaptation. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Irvine, Martin. “Linguistics: Key Concepts.” Media Theory and Cognitive Technologies. Georgetown U, Jan. 2014. Web. 28 January 2014.

Morgan, Daniel. “Rethinking Bazin: Ontology and Realist Aesthetics.” The Film Theory

Reader. Ed. Marc Furstenau. London-New York: Routldge, 2010.

Sanders, Julie. Adaptation and Appropiation. London-New York: Routldge, 2006.