I believe most of you have had the experience of sending emojis when chatting with friends which are helpful to better express your feelings, but sometimes your friends receive the emojis that are totally different from what you think they are seeing. For example, if you send a neutral face, faces will vary from platform to platform. As shown in the screenshot, the presentation of a neutral face is significantly different in Android, Microsoft, Apple and Samsung emoji systems. In some extreme cases, your friends see nothing but a bunch of unreadable codes like “ðŸ˜”.
How do emojis get lost in translation? Behind the emojis you see on your screens is the Unicode standard. It is a way of representing the written characters of any language by specifying a code range for a language family and standard bytecode definitions for each character in the language (Irvine, 2019). Unicode sets the basic emoji symbols that are available, then Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Samsung draw their own interpretation. That’s why a neutral face looks different on an Android phone than it does on an iPhone.
Database management system
A database system has four components: users, the database application, the database management system (DBMS), and the database. As an important part of a database system, DBMS, a computer program, is used to create, process, and administer the database (Kroenke, 2017).
In a DBMS environment, there are three types of users: application programmers, database administrators, and end users. The application programmers write programs in various programming languages to interact with databases. Database administrators take responsibility of managing the entire DBMS system. The end users interact with the database management system by conducting operations on database like retrieving, updating, deleting, and so on.
DBMS is highly applicable in our daily life. For example, in universities, DBMS is used to manage student information, course registrations, colleges and grades. University employs a database application to keep track of things, so that staff can easily retrieve and update student information on her computer with a software. Application programs read or modify database data by sending SQL statements to the DBMS. The DBMS receives requests and translates those requests into actions on the database (Kroenke, 2017). Then the database that stores a collection of related tables (like Student, Courses, Department, and Deposits) operate actions and send back the data that a university staff needs.
John D. Kelleher and Brendan Tierney, Data Science (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2018).
David M. Kroenke et al., Database Concepts, 8th ed. (New York: Pearson, 2017). Excerpt.
What is DBMS? https://www.guru99.com/what-is-dbms.html